The Philosophical Question, to which the first section of this new issue 9 of InCircolo is dedicated, discusses the increasingly complicated relationship of Nature and Culture, two concepts whose mutual connections have always prompted philosophical thinking and nowadays still require to be further inquired in great depth. The section is introduced by a thematic foreword written by Matteo Canevari, who also served as section editor. This introduction is followed by a translation of a paper by Philippe Descola where the author, starting from his field studies on the Amazons, develops a far-reaching, critical discussion on the problematic universalism often connected in the Western tradition to the dichotomy Nature/Culture. Gaspare Polizzi reconstructs the evolution of Michel Serres’ works, the French philosopher who in The Natural Contract stressed the necessity of a new relation between humanity and nature that can be envisioned by rethinking the process of hominisation. Andrea Bonato and Gioacchino Orsenigo consider the political aspects included in the desired shift of paradigm concerning Nature and Culture, focusing on the need of a future humanity capable of overcoming the end of the Western way of dwelling the world and commenting on Eduardo Viveiro de Castro’s thought. Anthropologist Laura Volpi delves into field research conducted among the Amazon community kichwa El Wayku, ethnographically substantiating the native ecological perspective, which goes beyond the opposition between Nature and Culture moving towards an integrated system of horizontal relations between all existing things – a perspective which is alternative to the Western one. Finally, Giovanni Fava analytically comments on Descola’s works, thus presenting a most useful summary.

Section II, Laboratory, hosts three essays that go back to the main theme of the last issue 8, Spinoza Today. In the first essay, Alessio Caselli studies the influence that the thought of Spinoza exerted on Giovanni Gentile’s philosophy. Michael A. Istvan Jr. proposes a thorough analysis of the substance/attribute relation as an essential trait of Spinoza’s conception of God, also evaluating points of tension and convergence of it with other characterization of God in Spinoza’s works. Thirdly, Dimitris Vardoulakis critically discusses Hobbes’ and Spinoza’s similar, but also different attempts of founding politics on the epicurean principle according to which human beings always act following their own interest.

In the next section, Cultures, Ayşe Yuva reflects on the identity of the European philosophical tradition from an eccentric and fascinating point of view: that elaborated by two materialist authors active in Turkey during the last part of the XIX century.

In Intersections Marco De Paoli examines Giorgio De Chirico’s writings and analyzes the reasons that lie at the back of his energic rebuttal of the entire artistic establishment of his time.

For Controversies Sofia Quaglia critically compares Roberto Esposito’s and Peter Sloterdijk’s notions of community and immunology.

The section Correspondence contains a contribution by Anna Bertelli, who reports on a journey of research across the gardens of Pavia and Munich.

In Philosophical Practices Alessandra Modugno considers which might be the best practices for communicating the value of philosophical experience to society.

In the Reviews and Events section, Silvana Borutti submits the text of a talk she should have given as a presentation of Giulio Giorello’s Etica del Ribelle in an event that did not take place due to the Covid-19 outbreak. Also, the section hosts six book reviews: Gianni Trimarchi on Il futuro di ieri by Paolo Calegari; Cristiano Vidali on Identità della persona e senso dell’esistenza by Andrea Zhok; Franco Sarcinelli on Corpo e rappresentazione by Massimo Mezzanzanica; Enrico Palma on Tempo e materia by Alberto Biuso; Fabio Fossa on Using Words and Things by Mark Coeckelbergh; and Elvira Gravina on Strange Tools by Alva Noe.

The issue ends with a brief Special Contribution in which Susy Ferrario presents (and directly quotes) some thoughts by Patrizia Pozzi, a Milan philosopher and ALS patient who with outstanding courage and perseverance keeps on passionately practicing the philosophical life.

The events that left an unforgettable mark on the history of the whole world during the few months in which this issue was firstly conceived and then realized – and that still haunt these first days of summer – reverberated on the editorial work behind this issue as well. We would like therefore to thank the entire team of InCircolo for their outstanding contribution and assistance. Last but not least, we are thankful to the colleagues who reviewed the manuscripts here published: Luca Brovelli, Tiziano Cancelli, Giovanni Carletti, Alessandro Carrieri, Giovanna Cosenza, Simona Di Paola, Francesca Giuliano, Caterina Moruzzi, Mario Porro, Nicola Russo, Martino Sacchi, Andrea Sangiacomo, Alice Sarcinelli, David Silva Labra, Irene Sucameli and Cristina Zaltieri.

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